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The question why Fellgiebel accepted and listed Hasenputsch as a Knight's Cross recipient is answered by the statement "Hasenputsch has been a member of the AKCR since the early beginnings".
According to Krätschmer—letter dated on 7 August to Von Seemen— the presentation was made in conjunction to the Oak Leaves presentation to Matthias Kleinheisterkamp and was announced via radio transmission on 28 April from the Führer Headquarters in Berlin to the 9.
The date is taken from the announcement made by the 6. A HPA nomination was never created or was not retained and according to the file card the nomination was numbered Nr.
The file card indicates no further information. The presentation date according to Ernst-Günther Krätschmer was the 6 May The presentation date 9 May was assigned by Walther-Peer Fellgiebel.
There is no file card in the archives. In the comment field is a short entry "follow-up on 10 May". Scherzer speculates that the approvals of the command chain were missing and had to be requested just like in many similar cases.
The nomination was to be presented again to Major Joachim Domaschk on 10 May. Heiland was a member of the AKCR. Waffen-Grenadier-Division of the SS lett.
The dishonourable discharge deprived him of all honours, ranks and orders. The LPA sent this nomination with a courier to the adjutancy of the Reichsmarschall on 25 April and requested "Please present to the Reichsmarschall ".
Therefore the courier couldn't reach him. General Rudolf Meister , who had been authorized to make presentations of Knight's Cross on 28 April, decided against Hengstler and rejected his nomination.
The non-contemporary file card states: Scherzer assumes that Hengstler received the German Cross instead. The presentation date stated by Walther-Peer Fellgiebel is that of the rejection note.
The civilian Herfurth was sentenced to death by the Volksgerichtshof on 29 September and executed the same day.
No file card was created. There is no further information regarding its presentation. Also possible is a direct presentation by Adolf Hitler.
The author Veit Scherzer argues that this is strange because Burgdorf had verifiably informed the HPA of direct presentations made in Berlin up to 26 April including.
The nomination was thus assessed as insufficient as well as postponed according to AHA 44 Ziff. The entry date noted on the nomination list for the higher grades of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross is 28 April The list indicates a note "deferred".
The approval cannot be proven. Swords yes, 9 May The sequential number "" and presentation date was assigned by the AKCR.
Hitzfeld was member of the AKCR. Reichsministerium des Inneren Ministry of the Interior. Retrieved 21 February Von Seemen, Gerhard Williamson, Gordon ; Bujeiro, Ramiro Knight's Cross and Oak Leaves Recipients — Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross.
Schnellboot service U-boat service. Fallschirmjäger fighter force Oak Leaves, Swords or Diamonds recipients.
Oak Leaves, Swords or Diamonds recipients. Retrieved from " https: Lists of Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross recipients.
Commander of Schnellboot S in the 3. Commander of the I. Staffelführer of the 5. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Leader of the I.
Commander of Pionier-Lehr-Bataillon 2 and leader of a Kampfgruppe  . Commanding general of the III. Zugführer platoon leader in the Gruppenkommandeur of the IV.
Leader of Panzer-Jäger-Kompanie  . Commander of the Gruppenkommandeur of the III. Pilot in the 4.
Commander of Jäger-Regiment 56  . Commander of the III. Radio operator in the 4. Staffelkapitän of the 5. Leader of the 2.
Pilot in the III. Gruppenkommandeur of the I. Commander of Artillerie-Regiment  . Leader of Grenadier-Regiment 20 motorized  .
Zugführer platoon leader in the 5. Pilot in the 6. Chief of the 9. Leader of the 4. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  .
Leader of the II. Chief of the 1. Chief of the 4. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of the II. Pilot in the 1. Staffelkapitän in the II.
Zugführer platoon leader in the 2. Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  . Pilot of the 4. Pilot in the I. Commander of Kampfgruppe  [Note 16].
Commander of Infanterie-Regiment  . Staffelführer in the III. Chief of the 3. Leader of machine gun squadron in the 2.
Ia operations officer in the 9. Flak-Division motorized  . Commander of Panzer-Regiment 4  .
Staffelkapitän of the 6. Leader of a Kampfgruppe of the V. SS-Gebirgskorps  [Note 20]. Chef des Generalstabes des Heeres  . Geschwaderkommodore of Kampfgeschwader 76  .
Group leader in the 3. Leader of Panzer-Feldersatz-Regiment 63  . Deputy leader of the 2. Zugführer platoon leader in the 4.
Leader of the 8. Leader of the 5. Staffelkapitän in the III. Pilot and observer in the 4. Deputy leader of the 8. Commander of Panzer-Artillerie-Regiment  .
Pilot in the II. Commander of a Kampfgruppe in the Waffen-Gebirgs-Division der SS . Deputy leader of the II.
Leader of the 1. Commander of Waffen-Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 28 . Pilot in the 7. Zugführer platoon leader in the 3. Commanding general of the X.
Commanding general of the LIV. Rifle leader in the 6. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  .
Commander of U  . Chief of the Chief of the Generalstab of the X. Commander of Grenadier-Regiment  . Leader of the Zugführer platoon leader in the I.
Staffelführer of the 7. Observer in the 9. Commanding general of the I. Commander of U  . Panzer commander in the Pioneer Zugführer platoon leader in the 5.
Pilot in the 9. Leader in Panzer-Jäger-Abteilung "Breslau"  . Commanding general of the XXX. Artilleriekommandeur  .
Commander of U  . Commander of Pionier-Bataillon 8  . Commander of schwere SS-Panzer-Abteilung .
Zugführer platoon leader in the 6. Ia operations officer of the 9. SS-Panzer-Division "Hohenstaufen"  .
Ordonnanzoffizier batman of the I. General staff officer with the commander of the fortress Schneidemühl Ia operations officer Panzer-Division "Holstein"  [Note 47].
Pilot in the Company leader in the Panzer-Aufklärungs-Abteilung 6  . Commander of Panzer-Verband  .
Chief of the 6. Commander of the 4. Regiment adjutant in the Infanterie-Regiment 77  [Note 53]. Pilot in the 8.
Leader of Kradschützen-Bataillon 55  . Commander of Grenadier-Regiment 55  . Commander of Panzer-Regiment 25  .
Staffelkapitän in the I. Commander of Kradschützen-Bataillon 61  . Leader of the 3. Commander of SS-Division "Reich"  .
Zugführer platoon leader in the 1. Adjutant in the III. The Rastatt Fortress rose. The Grand Duke now asked for Prussian armaments in fighting against the uprising.
Whilst the Revolutionary Army was withdrawing to Freiburg after several defeats, a constitutional assembly was held in the Basler Hof, the Freiburg council building, on 28 June.
At the request of deputy Struve, freed from his detention in Rastatt, the panel decided to continue the war against the enemies of German unity and freedom with all possible means.
Colonel Siegl took over the command of the remaining Revolutionary Army, which had been encountered by irregular troops from Alsace and Switzerland.
The defeat of the Baden and Palatine uprising was carried out by Prussian troops led by "the canister shot prince" William I.
The fighting had not happened because a change of opinion had taken place and numerous Baden Revolutionary soldiers were captured and taken into Prussian captivity.
Hirschfeld release them all immediately. On 24 July, the fall of the Rastatt fortress ended the revolution. Afterwards, Prussian-Baden war courts were established and sentenced criminals.
In Rastatt and Bruchsal, 26 further revolutionaries suffered the same fate. The defeat of the Baden uprising meant for a long time the end of the revolutionary-bourgeois freedom and unity aspirations in Germany.
The Heckerlied, or Hecker song, recalls the spirit of the revolutionary citizens of Baden. In , the city and state councils were merged into the Freiburg District Office.
In the same year, the Black Forest Association founded the first German hiking association in the city.
After the foundation of the Second German Empire in , Baden proved to be a loyal part from the outset since the ruling house was also linked to the Imperial House.
After in Baden, as everywhere else across Germany, Sedantag was celebrated, but in the southwest Germany, the day of the Battle of Belfort was celebrated.
In , in the presence of William I, the Grand Duke and Bismarck, the official victory monument, Siegesdenkmal , was erected in Freiburg.
The city experienced an economic boom during the Gründerzeit, not least because of annexed Alsace, as Colmar , located left of the Rhine was connect by rail to Freiburg.
Towards the end of the 19th century, Mayor Otto Winterer started a building boom, which was previously unknown and was named "the second founder of the city" in after serving for 25 years when he retired.
As an aspiring and modern city, Freiburg operated an electric tram network. For this reason, an electricity plant was built in Stühlinger.
In , the new city theatre was opened on the western edge of the inner city. During Winterer's reign as mayor, new residential areas such as the Wiehre and Stühlinger were established.
As a result, the number of buildings and inhabitants of Freiburg doubled. This was also due to the influx of older and wealthy people from the industrial areas of West Germany or from Hamburg, where cholera was raging, so that the city got the nickname Alldeutsches Pensionopolis German retirement city from Gerhart von Schulze-Gävernitz.
The townscape set out by Winterer which was adorned with a lot of historicism and had a medieval appearance, met the zeitgeist. The proximitiy to the Black Forest and Kaiserstuhl as well as the warm climate attracted the people.
This idyll exhaled growing social tensions. It was a monstrous provocation of the bourgeois idyll of Freiburg, when in April , on the eve of the Great War, Rosa Luxemburg denounced class differences and German militarism in the crowded art and festival hall.
To eliminate them, she called the workers to the general strike. Under the influence of the speech conducted by a traitor of Germany , as seen by the bourgeoisie, citizens of Freiburg joined the Social Democratic Party.
The state of war, announced in Freiburg on 31 July, in extracts, sparked great rejoice amongst most citizens of Freiburg see Spirit of After fighting with French troops at Mulhouse, the first wounded soldiers arrived in Freiburg on 8 August.
More than 2, injured soldiers had been wounded and taken to lazarettos set up in schools and gyms at the end of month. In total, there were around , injured people taken to the lazarettos across Freiburg during the war.
During the First World War, the first time that the French Air Force who at the time was leading the way bombed unarmed people was in Freiburg on 14 December The German commander regarded this as a breach of the restrictions on international law according to the Hague Conventions of and The poor supply situation  and the flows of refugees from Alsace were a serious burden for the citizens.
The German high command regarded the breach of the restrictions on international law according to the Hague Conventions of and The aerial warfare against civilian targets was escalating more and more.
The German government used the attacks as a form of propaganda almost instantaneously, the names and kinds of injuries, especially those affecting children .
Because of its proximity to the front, allied airplanes and zeppelins bombed a total of 25 times   and thus more frequently than other German cities.
They bombed Freiburg more than they did any other German city. Air bombing increasingly changed public life.
In December , there was a curfew on attacks. From April , blackout measures had to be taken. In May , the city reduced its public lighting to a quarter and in May , it completely turned it off.
The bombing situation showed that the supply routes leading through Freiburg to the front in Alsace had to be hit because there were no warlike targets in Freiburg.
This meant neither the fortifications, the special artillery installations, nor the larger squad contingents or important armaments companies.
In addition, the citizens of Freiburg experienced the war in nearby Alsace both visibly and acoustically. Gunfire on top of the Vosges could be seen and heard.
Soon, as in Germany, the first deficiencies could be seen by the lack of food supply to the population.
Food cards, which were gradually being issued, and tickets for daily life needs were often not worth the paper they were written on.
Due to the shortage of flour, bread was being stretched from potato starch and when potatoes were scarce, additional additives were found in war bread such as bran, maize, barley, lentils and even sawdust.
When, in the summer of , all bicycle tires had to be delivered, 10, bicycles were broken down for transport in Freiburg, Leather was one of the raw materials, which was no longer available at the start of the war for civilian use.
Soon, the majority of Freiburg's uniforms were worn out of fabric with wooden soles or ran barefoot in the summer.
In July , most of the bells in the Minster were donated. After the Spring Offensive had collapsed in and the defeat could be predicted as of August, Spanish flu was caught by the malnourished and the wounded in the lazarettos, from which people died in Freiburg.
On the morning of 9 November, , more than 9, soldiers gathered at Karlsplatz, defending the orders of their superiors. On their uniforms, they wore red cockades.
Military police shot but nobody was injured. Speakers urged prudence, peace and freedom. When, in the afternoon, the news arrived that Philipp Scheidemann had called the Republic in Berlin and soldiers' councillors first took over the city.
In the evening, they united with swiftly formed Workers' council lors to maintain law and order in Freiburg. The unification of Alsace to France after the loss of the First World War meant for Freiburg the loss of part of its land.
The city also lost its garrison when a 50 kilometre demilitarised zone was established on the right bank of the Rhine, where industrial settlements were banned.
Both of these contributed to the economic decline of the region. In the newly founded Weimar Republic in , 68 year-old lawyer, centre delegate and parliamentary president Constantin Fehrenbach resigned after the collapse of the Weimar coalition of a minority government from the Centre , German Democratic Party and the German People's Party as early as May This was due to the disunity of the coalition fulfilment of the Treaty of Versailles.
His successor was the former Minister of Finance of Baden, the left-wing Centre delegate and Freiburg-born Joseph Wirth , with a cabinet of Social Democrats, the Democratic Party and the Cetnre, which had to begin with unpopular policies of appeasement.
Whilst searching for allies against the victorious powers, Wirth, together with his foreign minister Walther Rathenau with Russia, affiliated the Treaty of Rapallo and led Germany out of isolation concerning foreign affairs.
In November , Wirth resigned because of quarrels within the coalition. In , in accordance to the initiative set out by French parliamentary deputy and pacifist Marc Sangnier , about 7, people from 23 nations gathered at the 3rd International Peace Congress in Freiburg to discuss ways of reducing hatred between nations, understanding the international situation and overcoming the war.
During the course of a district reform, the district of Breisach was dissolved in and its municipalities were largely allocated to the district council of Freiburg.
The Nazi Party was quite active in Breisgau from as early as , but in Freiburg, a ground-centre party and a strong social democrat, prevented a premature takeover of power by the Nazis, similar to the way they took over the city of Weimar in During a visit conducted by Adolf Hitler in to the football stadium Möslestadion, the citizens of Freiburg started to protest.
Since that moment, he was always shunned from the city. The further the economic situation worsened, the more the Weimar Republic lost the support of the population.
On 18 January, , during a celebration in Freiburg of the founding of the Bismarck Empire, the German national parliamentarian Paul Schmitthenner conjured up the strengthening of the German military concept in the belief of an up and coming great German Empire which benefits the German forces and eradicates the weak, reconciles capital and work for an earthly kingdom in splendour and glory.
The " Nazi seizure of power " at the end of January in Berlin also led to a quick brown takeover of power in Freiburg:. At the University of Freiburg, the new rector Martin Heidegger proclaimed the greatness of the national socialist departure and the Führer cult and conjured in his speech the bloodthirsty forces as the only preserve of German culture.
On 17 April, , a group of English pupils were involved in an accident on the Schauinsland, five of which died. The event was exploited as propaganda by the Nazi regime.
Two years later, the English monument was erected on Schauinsland. In March, , the " SS - Reichsführer " Heinrich Himmler installed a series of collaborations between Freiburg archaeologists and his organisation " Ahnenerbe " from a two-week holiday in Badenweiler.
As in many places across Germany, during the Kristallnacht of , the old synagogue in Freiburg went up in flames.
Afterwards, a large number of Jewish citizens were taken into protective custody. Of these, male Jews from Freiburg were taken to the Dachau concentration camp, north of Munich, for 18 years.
In , the District Office of Freiburg was renamed to the administrative district of Freiburg. The city of Freiburg separated and became independent.
On 22, October , the deportation of the Jews took place in Freiburg and across the whole state of Baden first to the French concentration camp at Gurs near to the Spanish border, and later from there to the extermination camps.
Numerous Stolperstein s were laid in Freiburg as an act of remembrance. History of the Jews in Freiburg im Breisgau.
From early Summer of to November , Josef Mengele , the Sanitätswesen , the concentration camp doctor of Auschwitz , who was notorious for his medical experiments on living humans, and his wife Irene had a joint apartment in the Sonnhalde district of Herdern.
During the Bombing of Freiburg on 10 May , the German Luftwaffe mistakenly bombed the city with 69 bombs and killed 57 people. Freiburg was largely spared from the aerial warfare conducted by the Allied forces.
However, on 27 November, , the British Royal Air Force bombed the city centre as part of Operation Tigerfish , killing almost 3, people and injuring some 9, people.
On 17 December, , parts of Stühlinger were hit, whereby the Herz-Jesu church was heavily damaged. Christoph Meckel , who spent his childhood in Freiburg, describes in an autobiographical narrative published in , the blaze after the bombing of Freiburg's city centre as and the spot where, a few miles away, the silhouette of Freiburg could usually be seen, powerful flame was burning.
Large orange smoke seethed up high into the night, drifting ferociously over the mountain tops and devouring all darkness. In the midst of the rubble, the Minster remained untouched.
Without any direct hits, it resisted impact thanks to its solid stone construction from the Middle Ages to the air pressure of the detonating bombs, which covered it.
With roof tiles being donated by the city of Basel, the Minster was able to be largely covered again by January On 21 April, , before the end of the war, the French marched into the ruins of the old town with the 2nd Regiment of Chasseurs d'Afrique.
Freiburg was a part of the French occupation zone. In the years leading up to the monetary reform of , reconstruction of the city was slow.
The rubble was transported from to to the Flückiger Lake by means of the Freiburg rubble railway, called the Volksmund Trümmerexpress. As in many other places in Germany, Freiburg received help from the Quakers and donations made by the Swiss.
From to , Freiburg was the capital of the country from the a state of Germany of Baden as a consequence of the division of southwest Germany into a French and American occupation zone.
In , efforts to merge Württemberg-Baden , Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden provinces into a powerful state of Germany, the Southwest State , led to a vote in which a majority of three states approved the merger, but the people from South Baden opposed it.
They wanted to see the old country of Baden , along the Upper Rhine to Constance and to Mannheim in the south. Despite strong protests by the citizens of South Baden, the state of Baden-Württemberg was formed with Stuttgart as its capital.
Today, Freiburg is the seat of the administrative district , which largely corresponds to the former state of South Baden.
Freiburg also saw a steady reconstruction of the inner city, which was largely aligned with the original streets. In , the University of Freiburg celebrated its anniversary.
In , Freiburg featured on the route of the Tour de France. Student unrest during the late s also spread to Freiburg.
The students demonstrated at the start against transportation costs which were increased by municipal transport companies. For the first time, police used water cannons.
In , the administrative district of Freiburg became a part of the newly formed Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald district.
Freiburg again became the seat of the new district but remained self-centred. With Ebnet and Kappel, the last two peripheral communities were incorporated on 1 July Therefore, the reform of the area had been completed.
In the s, Freiburg developed into a centre of new social movements and environmental movement because of political awareness grew after The starting point were the disputes over the planned Wyhl nuclear power station where Freiburg's individuals and groups also took part.
The successful prevention of planning gave decisive impulses for the emergent environmental movement in Germany.
As a result of these events, a strong autonomous scene and a broad ecologically oriented spectrum developed in the city. Thus, Freiburg became a stronghold for the newly founded Green Party.
Not just scientifically and economically, Freiburg developed a climate that gave the city a leading role as an environmental city. In , the 85th German Catholics Day took place in Freiburg.
Amongst the attendees was Mother Teresa. During and , the "house fight" raged across the city. As there was still a shortage of housing, some of the houses, which had been levelled for speculative reasons, had been occupied.
When reinforced police officers were deployed to clear the houses, students and supporters of the Autonomism movement campaigned for several weeks with fights in the street against the police forces.
It was only with the commitment of a citizens' group that the situation gradually calmed down. In , the first Zelt-Musik-Festival , then in the city centre, was organised in Freiburg.
In , Freiburg was the first German city to successfully implement a transportable, low-cost environmental map following the example of neighbouring Basel.
It has since served as a part of the newly established regional transportation association as a regional environmental map in the urban area as well as neighbouring districts Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald and Emmendingen.
In , Freiburg hosted the seventh state garden exhibition in Baden-Württemberg, which was of great importance for the development of the western districts and also led to the establishment of the eco-centre.
The site of the garden exhibition, the Seepark, is now a recreation area. The population growth of Freiburg in the 90s required the expansion of old and the construction of new residential areas.
On a site of the former Vauban-Schlageter barracks abandoned by the French garrison in , the internationally acclaimed green district of Vauban, was formed.
In , the groundbreaking ceremony for the new region of Rieselfeld to the west of the city. In , the city exceeded , inhabitants.
Amongst them included 30, students who were studying at the university and four other higher education institutions.
In the same year, Konzerthaus Freiburg opened. In , the first buildings of the newly erected Freiburg trade fair were completed. Both facilities are increasingly being used for congress, trade fairs and conferences.
In , Dieter Salomon was the first politician of the Green Party to be elected as mayor of a German city.
In and , the German-French summit meetings between the heads of state and government took place in Freiburg. With this election, the seat of the archbishopric and church institutions such as the German Caritas Federation, Freiburg strengthened its position as a centre of the Catholic Church in Germany.
With Freiburg's involvement in environmental issues, Freiburg was nominated for the European Green Capital Award in The city received 35 votes in eight place at the Expo in Shanghai as "Green City".
The company Mez, which has been based in Freiburg since under the leadership of Carl Mez, had great importance for Freiburg. During the 19th century, it was the largest silk weaving industry in Germany, employing about 1, people at end of the century.
From , the company was gradually taken over by the Scottish company Coats, with the family being represented in the management structure. During the Second World War, production was forced to be stopped.
A number of company buildings were given new uses, including the Südwestrundfunk radio station. After , dyeing was abandoned and the site was rebuilt in In Freiburg, the company Michael Welte and Söhne had its company headquarters founded in in Vöhrenbach in the Black Forest, moved to Freiburg in , destroyed by the bombing in and extinguished in It manufactured pneumatically controlled music automatons, above all orchestrions.
Since , they also made reproductions of the Welte-Mignon pianos. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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